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Osteoporose vorbeugen

Gepostet am 10. November 2014 um 9:25

40 % der Frauen erleiden in Ihrem Leben infolge von Osteoporose einen Bruch des Oberschenkelhalses, Handgelenks oder Rückenwirbels. Die fortschreitende Schwächung der Knochen tritt ab dem 50. Altersjahr auf. Sie wird durch den Abfall des Oestrogenspiegels, Bewegungsmangel und unzureichende Kalziumzufuhr begünstigt. Um dieses Altersleiden zu bekämpfen, muss die Erkrankung früh erkannt werden. Dabei gilt es, einige einfache gesundheitliche Regeln zu beachten.

Knochen: lebendes Gewebe

Knochen sind keine leblose Substanz, sondern lebendes Gewebe, das dauernd ab- und aufgebaut wird. Osteoporose entsteht, wenn dieses Gleichgewicht gestört wird, und äussert sich in Knochenschwund und Schwäche der Knochenarchitektur. Die Knochenmasse wird bis zum 20. Lebensjahr aufgebaut und bis 50 langsam abgebaut. Ab 50 beschleunigt sich der Abbau. Fünf Jahre nach der Menopause hat eine Frau schätzungsweise 5 bis 15 % ihrer Knochendichte eingebüsst. Danach geht die Knochendichte 2 % pro Jahr zurück.

Diagnose und Behandlung 

Die Diagnose wird formell durch klinische Beobachung (Abnahme der Körpergrösse, gewölbter Rücken ...) und eine Röntgenuntersuchung gestellt. Bei Brüchen oder fortgeschrittener Osteoporose ist eine therapeutische Behandlung angezeigt, um das Skelett zu stärken. Dank den Fortschritten der Medizin ist eine effiziente medikamentöse Behandlung möglich. Es gibt aber auch Massnahmen, dank denen die Auswirkungen von Oesteoporose aufgeschoben oder vielleicht sogar vermieden werden können.

Durchbrechen Sie die Bedrohung

Die wichtigsten Risikofaktoren sind das Alter, ein bereits erlittener Knochenbruch oder die Einnahme von Kortison. Die Knochenmasse ist zu 50 % durch das Erbgut bestimmt. Eine genetische Veranlagung ist natürlich nicht beeinflussbar und zeigt sich in einem sechsmal höheren Risiko für Osteoporose als bei der restlichen Bevölkerung.

Brüchige Knochen

Frauen sind häufiger betroffen als Männer. Ungefähr vier von zehn Frauen ab 50 weisen eine Osteoporose auf, während nur 8 bis 10 % der Männer betroffen sind. Die weiblichen Sexualhormone, deren Spiegel ab dem 50. Altersjahr abnimmt, spielen eine wesentliche Rolle für den Erhalt der Knochenmasse. Eine späte Pubertät, eine frühzeitige oder chirurgische Menopause beschleunigen den Knochenabbau. Untergewicht ist ebenfalls ein Risikofaktor, da das Fettgewebe Oestrogene produziert. Rauchen und übermässiger Kaffee- und Alkoholkonsum sind ebenfalls schädlich. Kalzium- und Vitamin-D-Mangel, der vor allem bei Senioren auftritt, führt zu einem erhöhten Knochenumsatz.

Die Knochen stärken

Selbst wenn weder Erbgut noch Alter beeinflussbar sind, gibt es doch einige Massnahmen, mit denen die Zeichen der Zeit aufgehalten werden können. Dazu gehört regelmässige Bewegung. Es wird empfohlen, täglich eine halbe Stunde zu spazieren sowie Sport zu treiben wie Joggen, Langlauf, sanfte Gymnastik, Tai Chi oder Yoga. Vitamin-D- und Kalziummangel sind Risikofaktoren für Osteoporose. Vitamin D ist das Sonnenvitamin. Es wird vermutet, dass 90 % der Personen in medizinischen Einrichtungen einen Vitamin-D-Mangel aufweisen, obwohl 15 Minuten täglich an der Sonne - auch durch eine Scheibe - ausreichen würden, um diesen Mangel auszugleichen. Kalzium ist an Aufbau und Erhalt der Knochenmasse beteiligt. Ernährungswissenschaftler empfehlen, drei Portionen Milchprodukte pro Tag zu konsumieren. Ausserdem weist Leitungswasser teilweise viel Kalzium auf. Ein Drittel der Frauen über 65 Jahre stürzt mindestens einmal pro Jahr. Insbesondere ältere Personen sollten sanfte Gymnastik betreiben, um die Muskelkraft und die Gelenkbeweglichkeit zu erhalten. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit muss der Wohnsituation von Senioren gelten. Alle Hindernisse, die zu einem Sturz führen könnten, sollten beseitigt werden.

Knochen aus Beton

Die stille Krankheit Osteoporose, die häufig erst bei Knochenbrüchen entdeckt wird, kann gravierende Folgen haben oder sogar zu Invalidität führen. Es empfiehlt sich, sie ab den ersten Anzeichen zu behandeln, oder noch besser, präventive Massnahmen zu ergreifen durch einen gesunden Lebensstil und eine Ernährung mit vielen Milchprodukten. So kann vermieden werden, dass die Knochen brüchig werden und sich die Architektur in einen "Glasturm" verwandelt.


Quelle: Login 4/2014, Dr. med. P. Piccinin

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